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November 27
11:41 2018

By: Harshima Sharma

Heart disease, such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, congestive heart failure, and congenital heart disease, is the leading cause of death for men and women in India.  In developing countries, cardiac arrest is high. Prevention includes quitting smoking, lowering cholesterol, controlling high blood pressure, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising. This article will provide aid on how to combat heart-diseases, precautions, cure and many more.

Thumb Rule to Maintain Healthy Heart

With fast pace urban life, unhealthy lifestyle, incessant stress, sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activities and fussy eating (relying on junk and frozen food) the risk of heart attack has doubly increased in India. The worst part is even youngsters and middle aged alike is suffering from heart diseases.


A heart attack happens when there is a sudden loss of blood flow to a part of your heart muscle. Most heart attacks are caused by coronary heart disease. Now what is CHD (Coronary Heart Disease)? CHD, previously called ischaemic heart disease, is when your coronary arteries become narrowed by a gradual build-up of fatty material within their walls. These arteries supply your heart muscles with oxygen-rich blood.



We at have done a thorough research on heart diseases and how to take precautionary measures for the same after a candid interaction with Dr. Niraj Prasad who is a Senior Consultant -Interventional Cardiology at Medanta, Ranchi.

Technology is growing these days and Interventional Cardiology has taken place of long drawn traditional open heart surgery. Interventional Cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with catheter based treatment of structural heart disease. It helps in curing cardiovascular disease as well as congenital (present at birth) and structural heart conditions through catheter-based procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting. “The easier solution for the cardiac aliment is interventional cardiology, previously we used to cut the sternum and do open heart surgery, but now we don’t have to do that, we can open blockage with stunts and angioplasty. growing technology has cured more than 90% cases without operation and thanks to interventional cardiology that many heart-diseases are under control,” added Dr. Niraj Prasad.

Here are the excerpts from his interview along with the facts, diagnosis, symptoms and precautions of heart attack.

Thumb rules for a layman to maintain healthy heart

  • If you are above 40 years and you have a risk factor of heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic smoker, you have to be careful about it.

  • The biggest controversy is when it comes to alcohol, foreigners conducted a study and as per their survey, they feel good when they take alcohol, the longevity is more, hence they consume it frequently! But, in Indians the same study done, alcohol proved to be very harmful for them. Tribals who are addicted to local alcohol made of fermented rice, their arteries are damaged to such a bad extent, that even angioplasty and surgery will not help.HEART ATTACK: SYMPTOMS, CAUSES - PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND TREATMENT

  • There are 2 types of risk factors in heart attack, one is reversible and another is irreversible. Irreversible is connected to genetic history, passed through mother, father and close-knit relatives. Then you need to be careful, you cannot fully cure it, but need to be aware of your heart condition, take regular prescribed medication, do not put extra stress, go for regular check-up and avoid anything which is alcoholic and has nicotine. Cigarette, gutka, tobacco, paan masala should be avoided.


  • Have a disciplined food-intake, cheesy food can be relished once or twice a week, but don’t make it a regular habit. Avoid junk/fast food.HEART ATTACK: SYMPTOMS, CAUSES - PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND TREATMENT

  • Eating healthy food, reducing stress levels and regular work outs will work as the pillars against the risk of heart attack. Walking is one the best way to keep your heart healthy. The risk of heart diseases is more in men when compared to women.

Heart friendly food and food that is bad for heart

  • Mutton and whole egg is bad for heart, small chicken and fish is good for heart. Egg white is good.HEART ATTACK: SYMPTOMS, CAUSES - PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND TREATMENT

  • Try to take baked/roast chicken and not deep friedHEART ATTACK: SYMPTOMS, CAUSES - PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND TREATMENT

  • Cooking Medium – Anything that is solid at room temperature like ghee, dalda, butter, cheese etc should be avoided, or take it minimum. But those that are liquid at room temperature like Sanola, Safola, Mustard Oil, Olive Oil should be used for cooking your food.


  • Cashew nut, raisins are harmful for patients who have heart risks. They should take only almonds and walnuts.

How can a normal/healthy person get sudden heart attack?

A normal person suddenly gets a heart attack, and then there are few main reasons behind it.

  • Severe cardiac blockage 
  • Brain Hemorrhage
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Coronary artery disease. This is the most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest in people older than 35.
  • Marfan syndrome. This inherited disorder can cause parts of the heart to stretch and become weak
  • Long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. These disorders of the heart’s electrical system can cause abnormal heart rhythms. 

 Ways that stress your heart and how can you de-stress it

  • Heart is stressed when there is constant tension and work pressure in your profession. Secondly, when you are not able to get sufficient sleep.HEART ATTACK: SYMPTOMS, CAUSES - PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND TREATMENT
  • When you consume anything nicotinic as well as anomalous feed is the reason for heart stress.
  • Cholesterol is a physiological substance, is the cement of our body, if any cell is destroyed the repair is done by cholesterol. But excessive cholesterol blocks the arterial supply to the heart, and lack of oxygen supply to heart leads to heart-attack. Excess of this will not only block heart, but damage brain and kidney too, and these are cumulative agents that take many lives. HEART ATTACK: SYMPTOMS, CAUSES - PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND TREATMENT

First Aid Steps to be taken during Heart Attack

  • Heart Attack occurs due to cholesterol deposit in the arterial blood supply, there is a clot which blocks the heart. To detect this, the first thing that a patient can do is to take ECG and confirm whether its heart-attack or not.
  • Secondly you should take Ecosprin, Aspirin or Sorbitrate immediately, which is a blood thinner.
  • Never neglect a person with chest pain
  • Make the person sit in a slightly reclined position
  • Move the person to a more ventilated area
  • If person is sweating profusely or pulse is low do not administer sorbitrate
  • Ask the person to cough
  • Seek immediate medical attention
  • A person suffering from a heart attack should receive medical care within one hour. Come to the emergency department at the earliest, because time is very important in heart attack.

Reasons for steep increase of heart-attack in youngsters.  Even people between 30-40 years of age are having heart ailments.HEART ATTACK: SYMPTOMS, CAUSES - PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND TREATMENT

  • No preference given to Health
  • No time to exercise
  • Stress
  • Junk food
  • Obesity and smoking

Most of the time heart disease in less than 40 years is of two types, rural and urban background. In rural background, there is valvular heart disease due to poor hygiene and trans-infection because of Streptococcus Bacteria. That leads to constriction of valves, if they are damaged then it needs to be changed. In Urban Areas, even the youngest chap of 26 has undergone heart problems. Those who are addict of drugs like ganja, cocaine, heroin, marijuana etc suffer from heart disease at an early age.


Angioplasty is only decided after angiography, when there is a blockage of at least 70% then this treatment should be taken. When patient is symptomatic, restless, suffering from chest discomfort, pain and continuous sweating, then angioplasty is recommended.

Symptoms of unhealthy heart


  • Chest pain


  • Chest pain, because of heart attack or some other reason. Few points to be noted. If there is a chest pain which comes on walking and becomes light when you take rest, it’s likely to be cardiac. Pain is coming and it comes to the back, between the two muscles, then also it’s a cardiac pain. Third, if the pain is coming and you feel that the jaws are constricted/ strained, then the right corner is blocked.HEART ATTACK: SYMPTOMS, CAUSES - PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES AND TREATMENT
  • While walking, when you have sudden pain in heart and feel that acute pain till arms – it is in the ventral aspect (inner aspect) then it is cardiac. But if it is coming from the outer side, then it is not cardiac but spondylitis. These three things combined together are diagnostic of heart attack.
  • Mood Swings
  • Rapid Irregular Pulse
  • Excess Cough and Congestion

Precautions to be taken after Angioplasty

  • Never stop the medication without consultation with doctor. Most people from rural belt, when they come out of heart trauma, they stop the medicine. This can lead to further problems.
  • Eating the right foods is essential to heart disease treatment after angioplasty. In fact, following a heart-healthy diet as part of your heart disease treatment plan after angioplasty can lessen the chance that you’ll have a future cardiac problem, like a heart attack, by as much as 73 percent.
  • As you recover from angioplasty, consider adding these foods to your daily meal plans – Whole Grains, fruits and vegetables, healthy fats (Olive and Canola oils are good source of healthy fats and good replacement for butter), nuts/beans, seeds, dark chocolate, and fresh-brewed tea.

Foods to avoid for heart-healthy eating

  1. Processed meats
  2. Saturated fats and Trans -fats- Watch for saturated fats in butter, cream, cheese, fatty red meat, and poultry skin
  3. Refined and processed grains
  4. Food and drink with added sugar – Also steer clear of foods like candies, jelly, and desserts — they tend to also be high in sugar, which can lead to weight gain.

Difference between heartburn and heart-attack

  • Burning sensation is there both in case of heart burn and heart attack. Suppose there is pain, feeling of burning sensation and get lot of sweating, then its Cardiac pain, it’s always waxing and waning, it is never constantly high.
  • Heart attack pain is caused when one of the arteries supplying the heart becomes blocked. Angina is a similar chest pain caused when these arteries are narrowed by heart disease.
  • Heartburn is a burning pain often felt in the upper belly or lower chest. It is caused by stomach acid going back up the food pipe.
  • Heartburn and heart attack pain can be similar. If someone is in doubt whether pain is a heart attack, they should always call for an ambulance. If it is a heart attack, prompt medical care can be lifesaving.
  • Heartburn creates a burning sensation in the food pipe. This burning-type pain usually happens just above the stomach. The acid can also reach higher up, possibly even as far as the back of the mouth.

 Clear Symptoms of a heart attack


Heart attacks can often – but not always – happen with classic symptoms:

  • Chest pain that is often described as pressure, squeezing, heaviness, tightness, fullness, or ache
  • Chest pain that feels like a very heavy weight crushing against the chest
  • Pain may come and go, but lasts for more than a few minutes
  • Not all heart attacks give the same symptoms. Symptoms can be mild or severe, and some people experience no symptoms at all.

The chest pain or discomfort is usually central or central-left, but it might not be. The pain may spread to other areas – to one or both arms, the neck, jaw, or upper or mid-back.

Heart attack often comes with other symptoms:


  • Breaking out in a cold sweat
  • Being short of breath
  • Feeling sick or nauseous
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling very tired or lacking in energy
  • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded 

Things that you and your health care professional can do for heart disease can be all over the map, from CPR, to high-tech surgeries, to caregiving. The treatment may vary from cases to cases

Interventions (Types of Interventions)

  1. CPR – Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

  2. Stents

  3. Angioplasty and Stents – Angioplasty is a procedure that uses very little cutting to open blocked heart arteries. Stents can be put in during angioplasty.

  4. Heart Bypass Surgery –This can treat heart disease when your coronary arteries are blocked. Your doctor may treat the problem by giving the blood a new pathway to the heart.

  5. Valve Disease Treatment

  6. A person’s diseased heart is replaced with a healthy donor’s heart. The donor is a person who has died and whose family has agreed to donate their loved one’s organs.

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